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Giant leap to Type 1 diabetes cure

Monday, 13 October 2014 10:01

THE hunt for a cure for type 1 diabetes has recently taken a "tremendous step forward", scientists have said.

The disease is caused by the immune system destroying the cells that control blood sugar levels.

A team at Harvard University used stem cells to produce hundreds of millions of the cells in the laboratory.

Tests on mice showed the cells could treat the disease, which experts described as "potentially a major medical breakthrough".

Beta cells in the pancreas pump out insulin to bring down blood sugar levels.

But the body's own immune system can turn against the beta cells, destroying them and leaving people with a potentially fatal disease because they cannot regulate their blood sugar levels.

It is different to the far more common type 2 diabetes which is largely due to poor lifestyle.

Perfect cocktail

The team at Harvard was led by Prof Doug Melton who began the search for a cure when his son was diagnosed 23 years ago. He then had a daughter who also developed type 1.

He is attempting to replace the approximately 150 million missing beta cells, using stem cell technology.

He found the perfect cocktail of chemicals to transform embryonic stem cells into functioning beta cells.

Tests on mice with type 1 diabetes, published in the journal Cell, showed that the lab-made cells could produce insulin and control blood sugar levels for several months.

Dr Melton said: "It was gratifying to know that we could do something that we always thought was possible.

"We are now just one pre-clinical step away from the finish line."

However, his children were not quite so impressed: "I think, like all kids, they always assumed that if I said I'd do this, I'd do it."

If the beta cells were injected into a person they would still face an immune assault and ultimately would be destroyed.

More research is needed before this could become a cure.

'Game-changer'

Sarah Johnson, from the charity JDRF which funded the study, told the BBC: "This isn't a cure, it is a great move along the path. It is a tremendous step forward.

"Replacing the cells that produce insulin as well as turning off the immune response that causes type 1 diabetes is the long-term goal."

Prof Chris Mason, a stem cell scientist at University College London, said: "A scientific breakthrough is to make functional cells that cure a diabetic mouse, but a major medical breakthrough is to be able to manufacture at large enough scale the functional cells to treat all diabetics.

"This research is, therefore, a scientific and potentially a major medical breakthrough.

"If this scalable technology is proven to work in both the clinic and in the manufacturing facility, the impact on the treatment of diabetes will be a medical game-changer on a par with antibiotics and bacterial infections."

Dr Gillian Morrison, from the University of Edinburgh, agreed that this "represents a real advance in the field".

She said: "The next important challenge will be to find ways to maintain these cells inside the body so they are protected from the immune response and have long-term function."

 

 

What is toenail fungus?

Monday, 13 October 2014 10:38

TOENAIL fungus is an infection that gets in through cracks in your nail or cuts in your skin. It can make your toenail change colour or get thicker. It can also hurt. Because toes are often warm and damp, fungus grows well there. Different kinds of fungi and sometimes yeast affect different parts of the nail. Left untreated, an infection could spread to other toenails, skin, or even your fingernails.

Symptoms

Infected nails are usually thicker than normal and could be warped or oddly shaped. They can break easily. Nails with fungus might look yellow. Sometimes a white dot shows up on the nail and then gets bigger. When fungus builds up under your nail, it can loosen and even separate the nail from the bed. The fungus can also spread to the skin around your nail.

Who Gets Toenail Fungus?

Men are more likely to get it than women. The older you are, the better your chances are, too. People who have diabetes, athlete's foot, or a weak immune system, who smoke or whose family members have it are also at a higher risk. If you spend a lot of time in the water or you've injured your toenail, your odds for getting toenail fungus go up.

Treatment

The way you treat toenail fungus depends on which fungus you have and how bad the infection is. Your doctor may try one thing or a combination:

a.  A topical cream that goes directly on the nail

b.  An antifungal prescription pill

c.   Removing the damaged area of the nail or skin

In some cases, you might need to have the nail

Take Care of Your Toes

Use soap and water to wash your feet, and dry well, including between toes. Trim your toenails -- straight across -- to keep them shorter than the end of your toe. Make sure the tools you use are clean, too. Wash clippers and files with soap and water, then wipe with rubbing alcohol. You might be tempted to cover up discoloured nails with polish, but don't. Your nail bed can't "breathe," which keeps fungus from going away.

Keep Feet Dry and Clean

Be smart about your footwear. Choose socks that wick moisture away. Change them regularly. Make sure your shoes fit well. They should be made of something that lets air move through it, like canvas, mesh, or leather. Wear shower shoes in wet public places like locker rooms and swimming pools.

Know Your Toes

Take a good look at your nail beds and the skin around your toenails regularly, at least once a month. (You might need to use a mirror if it's hard to see your toes.) Watch for changes in colour and texture, as well as for cuts or damage. Does anything hurt? If your symptoms don’t improve or get worse, give your doctor a call.

Source: webmd.com

 

High cholesterol linked to prostate cancer return

Monday, 13 October 2014 10:39

AFTER surgery for prostate cancer, elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides may be linked with greater risk of the cancer's return, a new study suggests.

In a review of more than 800 men who had had their prostate gland removed, those with higher levels of these two blood fats were more likely to have their cancer come back, compared with men with normal levels.

"These findings suggest that normalization, or even partial normalization, of blood fats among men with high cholesterol and triglycerides may reduce the risk of prostate cancer recurrence," said lead researcher Emma Allott, a postdoctoral associate at Duke University School of Medicine. Cholesterol levels can be modified by diet or use of drugs called statins, she said.

Allott's team also found that increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol, benefited some men. For every 10 milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL) increase in men with abnormal HDL, the risk for prostate cancer recurrence dropped by 39 percent, they said.

But Dr. Anthony D'Amico, chief of radiation oncology at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, expressed a note of caution. "This is a study of association, not causality," he said, noting it doesn't prove that normal blood-fat levels prevent cancer recurrence.

D'Amico, who wasn't involved in the study, does not recommend that men take statins to protect themselves from prostate cancer based on this study or similar research.

A clinical trial that compares statins, such as Lipitor, with placebo (sham) drugs to specifically test whether or not they reduce the risk of prostate cancer is needed before these drugs can be recommended for prevention of cancer or its recurrence, D'Amico said.

His reluctance is based on disappointing results from trials that found no benefit from other associations that had looked promising.

"There might be ways to modify risk factors for prostate cancer recurrence that need to be studied," he said. "But this study doesn't prove that lowering cholesterol works."

The study was published Oct. 10 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Among the 843 men in the study, 325 had abnormal cholesterol levels, 263 had abnormal triglyceride levels, and 293 had a recurrence of prostate cancer, according to the report.

Men who had triglyceride levels of 150 mg/dL or higher had a 35 percent increased risk of their cancer coming back, compared with men with normal triglyceride levels, the researchers found.

Moreover, every 10 mg/dL increase in cholesterol above 200 mg/dL was linked with a 9 percent increase in risk for the return of prostate cancer, the researchers said.

"Understanding the role of high cholesterol as a modifiable risk factor for both heart disease and cancer, the most common causes of death, is of great importance," Allott said.

Approximately 45 per cent of deaths worldwide are attributable to heart disease and cancer, and prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death among American men, she added.

Source: healthday

 

 

 

What to feed your baby on in Year 1

Tuesday, 14 October 2014 10:23

Start Solids at 4-6 Months

THAT”S the recommended time to introduce solid foods -- usually rice cereal mixed with breast milk or formula, to start. But it's not just about age. Before starting solids, your baby should be able to sit up (with support), turn his head away, and make chewing motions. He should also be past the reflex that makes him spit out anything but liquid.

Keep Going With Breast Milk or Formula

Babies usually don't eat a lot of solid foods right away. So think of solids as something you’re adding to your baby's diet, not as a replacement for breast milk or formula. Remember, you're introducing solid foods, not totally changing your baby's diet. That will happen gradually.

Why Start With Rice Cereal?

You don’t have to -- there's no hard-and-fast rule about what solid foods you should give your baby first. It’s just that with a single-grain, iron-fortified infant cereal -- such as rice cereal -- it may be easier to notice any food allergies than with a cereal made from several grains. You may want to mix it with formula or breast milk to get a runny consistency at first, until your baby gets used to the new texture.

Eating Solids Takes Practice

It may seem like it’s something natural, but being fed by a spoon is new to your baby. Up until now, she’s only had a liquid diet. She’ll need practice to get used to the spoon and to the feel of having solid food in her mouth. So don't expect her to eat a whole lot -- maybe a teaspoon or two at a time -- when you start. Instead of trying to get her to eat a certain amount, focus on letting her get used to the experience.

Start Fruits and Vegetables, One at a Time

Fruits, vegetables, grains, and even pureed meats can all be on the menu for your baby. You may want to introduce them one at a time to see how your little one reacts. If your baby won't eat them at first, try again later. Tell your paediatrician if you think your baby might have any food allergies. Use soft baby food from a jar, or soften foods by heating or pureeing them. Put just enough on the spoon for your baby to swallow easily.

Avoid Milk and Honey

Most paediatricians say you should wait until after your baby's first birthday to start offering cow's milk. That’s because some babies may have a hard time digesting it before then. And, don't give honey to babies younger than 1 year (some paediatricians say up to 2 years). That’s because of a possible botulism risk that a baby's developing immune system can't fend off.

Stop When Baby's Ready to Stop

Your baby will let you know when he’s done eating. He might swat at the spoon, turn his head away, zip his lips tightly, spit out whatever you put in his mouth, or cry. Don't make him eat more than he wants. Kids will eat when they're hungry and stop when they're full. Honouring those instincts may help them avoid overeating now and when they get older.

Stop When Baby's Ready to Stop

Your baby will let you know when he’s done eating. He might swat at the spoon, turn his head away, zip his lips tightly, spit out whatever you put in his mouth, or cry. Don't make him eat more than he wants. Kids will eat when they're hungry and stop when they're full. Honouring those instincts may help them avoid overeating now and when they get older.

It's Going to Get Messy

As your baby grows, he'll try to feed himself. Chances are, a good bit of food is heading for his face, hands, hair, bib, clothes, or high chair tray -- not to mention you or any surfaces within flinging range. Learning to eat solid food is a full-body, tactile experience for your baby. Put a mat underneath his highchair to catch some of the mess, dress accordingly, and be patient -- this phase won't last forever.

Try Finger Foods When Baby's Ready

Around 9 months or so, your baby will be able to pick up small pieces of soft table food to eat. You'll still need to spoon-feed for a while, and continue formula or breast milk. Some great "finger foods" include ripe banana pieces, cooked chunks of carrots, cottage cheese, well-cooked pasta, dry cereal, and scrambled eggs. Avoid choking hazards like hard candy, chips, raw vegetables, grapes or raisins, hard cheese, and whole hot dogs.

Source: webmd.com

 

Frequently asked questions about lung cancer

Wednesday, 15 October 2014 07:21

What is lung cancer?

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Tobacco tied to higher risk of Oral HPV infection

Wednesday, 15 October 2014 07:21

TOBACCO use in any form appears to be linked to an increased risk of infection with oral human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), a virus that can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, according to Johns Hopkins University researchers.

The odds of being infected with HPV16, a sexually transmitted disease, rise as tobacco use increases, the researchers said. As few as three cigarettes a day can increase the risk of infection with HPV by almost one-third, according to the study.

How tobacco use might influence HPV16 infection isn't clear, said lead researcher Dr. Carole Fakhry, an assistant professor of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

"We don't fully understand oral HPV16," she said. "People exposed to tobacco could be more likely to become infected after exposure to HPV16 or less likely to get rid of the infection."

Fakhry cautioned that this study does not prove that tobacco makes it easier to get HPV16, only that the two factors are linked. Since tobacco use is associated with other risky behaviours, it's possible that people who use tobacco engage in more oral sex, which could increase their odds of being infected with HPV16, Fakhry explained.

She added that smoking, chewing or snorting tobacco doesn't cause HPV16 infection, but may make it easier to get the infection. Non-smokers are also at risk for HPV16, especially those exposed to second-hand smoke, she said.

HPV16, which is transmitted through oral sex, is linked to 80 percent of cancers located in the back of the throat, according to the researchers. Over the last 20 years, this type of cancer has increased 225 percent in the United States, the researchers noted.

This year alone, about 37,000 Americans, mostly men, will get mouth or throat cancer, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). About 7,300 will die from these cancers, according to the ACS.

For the study, Fakhry and her colleagues collected data on nearly 7,000 men and women who took part in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the participants, there were just over 2,000 tobacco users. More than 80 percent of tobacco users were cigarette smokers, according to the study. Other forms of tobacco use included chew, snuff and pipe smoking, the study found. Sixty-three of the tobacco users were infected with HPV16, the study reported.

The researchers measured blood levels of cotinine, a by-product of tobacco use, and found an amount equal to three cigarettes a day increased the risk of infection 31 percent, according to the study. When they measured urine levels of another tobacco-related marker, NNAL, the risk increased 68 percent when the levels equalled four cigarettes a day, the study found.

"This study highlights the need to understand the effect of tobacco on HPV16 infection over time," Fakhry said.

The report was published in the Oct. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Dr. Norman Edelman, a senior consultant for scientific affairs at the American Lung Association, said, "The connection between HPV and tobacco is probably real."

The question is whether the connection is based in biology or social behaviour, he said. Smoking may be a marker of increased oral sex, Edelman said.

"If that is not true, then some of the contents of tobacco promote infection by this sexually transmitted virus, and that's a very important finding," he said.

Edelman added that studies have shown that nicotine increases tumour growth and the same could also be the case for viral infection.

"There is a lot of other stuff in tobacco that causes inflammation," he said. "So it may be that all the other inflammatory components of tobacco allow HPV to attack the tissues of the mouth and grow and stay put."

This is yet another reason not to smoke, chew tobacco or use snuff, because it's the same stuff going directly to the mouth, Edelman said. "Oral cancer is very nasty," he said.

Whatever the reason behind the increased risk of HPV16 infection for people who smoke, a vaccine for HPV -- including HPV16 -- is available for teens and young adults, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The vaccine is routinely recommended for 11- and 12-year-old children, but can be given up to age 26 for both males and females, according to the CDC.

Source: healthday

 

 

‘Vegetative patients show glimmers of consciousness’

Monday, 20 October 2014 07:08

SCIENTISTS have uncovered hidden signatures in the brains of people in vegetative states that suggest they may have a glimmer of consciousness.

Doctors normally consider these patients - who have severe brain injuries - to be unaware of the world around them although they appear awake.

Researchers hope their work will help identify those who are actually conscious, but unable to communicate.

Their report appears in PLoS Computational Biology.

After catastrophic brain injuries, for example due to car crashes or major heart attacks, some people can appear to wake up yet do not respond to events around them.

Doctors describe these patients as being in a vegetative state.

Patients typically open their eyes and look around, but cannot react to commands or make any purposeful movements. Some people remain in this state for many years.

But a handful of recent studies have questioned this diagnosis - suggesting some patients may actually be aware of what is going on around them, but unable to communicate.

A team of scientists at Cambridge University studied 13 patients in vegetative states, mapping the electrical activity of their nerves using a mesh of electrodes applied to their scalps.

Dr Srivas Chenn, and Sandra Bell whose son is in a vegetative state, spoke to Today

The electrical patterns and connections they recorded were then compared with healthy volunteers.

The study reveals four of the 13 patients had an electrical signature that was very similar to those seen in the volunteers.

Dr Srivas Chennu, who led the research, said: "This suggests some of the brain networks that support consciousness in healthy adults may be well-preserved in a number of people in persistent vegetative state too."

In the second stage of their experiment, scientists arranged for these four patients to have their brains scanned using an MRI machine while being asked to imagine playing tennis.

Previous research shows the area of the brain linked to planning movement lights up when some people in vegetative states performed the task.

And the Cambridge team found three of their patients had similar results - suggesting they were conscious enough to understand a command and to decide to follow it through.

Dr Chennu added: "This type of information might be helpful for families and the healthcare team looking after the patient.

"We have heard anecdotally that carers change their level of interaction with patients once they know there may be some hope of awareness."

Dr Tristan Bekinschtein, who was also involved in the research, said there were some limitations to the test, but "with other tests it could help in the clinical assessment of patients".

He added: "If a patient's awareness networks are intact, then we know that they are likely to be aware of what is going on around them."

Source: bbc

 

Reclaim your sex drive after menopause

Monday, 20 October 2014 07:09

YOU can feel just as sexy after menopause as you did in the decades before. You can have great sex, too. If your sex drive slows, think of it as a speed bump, not a stop sign. Here's a roadmap.

First, Relax

Low sex drive may be the No. 1 sex complaint among midlife women. Though not all women feel it, it's normal if you do.

Speak Up and Check Up

Don't be shy about sex talk now. Start with a frank doctor visit.

"The causes of low desire in women can be very complex," says Mary Rosser, MD, PhD, an OB/GYN at Montefiore Medical Center in New York. One or more of these issues could be to blame:

 Age. Out of sync with him? Women are two to three times more likely than men to see desire dip with age. You can feel the effects of menopause 10 years or more before your periods end.

 Hormone effects. Falling estrogen around the time of menopause drags down desire. Hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness can also crash sleep, mood -- and romance. If chemotherapy or having your ovaries removed thrusts you into menopause, you may have a harder time. It can cause more intense symptoms than the slower process of natural menopause.

 Partner problems. Marriage trouble may have put your sex drive in park -- not hormones.

 Other health troubles. Being depressed can be a leading sex-killer. Others include: anxiety, bladder control trouble, chronic illness, and drugs used to treat illnesses.

 Life stress. "I can’t tell you how many women I see are just too busy with work and home life to be sexy human beings," Rosser says.

Reset Your Desire-Zappers

It would be nice if you could pop a Viagra, like men, to pump up your sex drive. But male desire centers on blood flow. In women, it's more complex. What can help:

Lubricate. Thinning vaginal tissue causes painful sex and can lead to urinary tract infections. Both can make you avoid sex. Products like KY Jelly and Astroglide add moisture. Shy about buying? Order them online.

 Try hormones. Your doctor can prescribe estrogen (in a cream, ring, or tablet) to apply in your vagina. This thickens the tissue and helps make sex feel better. If you also have symptoms like hot flashes, an estrogen patch or pills can ease them and may boost desire.

 Try changing medicines. Some drugs for blood pressure and depression can nuke sex drive. Ask your doctor about taking a break from a problem drug or switching to one with less sexual side effects.

Rethink Sex

You may need a mental makeover. Tweaking your approach to sex can make a big difference:

Put your pleasure first. If you focus on yourself during sex, you can set the right tempo for you. One study found that older women who were least likely to take the lead about when and how to have sex had the most unhappy partners.

Make time for each other. Your instinct may be to avoid romance when you don't feel in the mood. Yet date nights and mini-trips can say "this is key to me" and help reset desire.

 Bring back foreplay. Your clitoris takes longer to respond with age. Give ample time to cuddle, kiss, or stroke. Just start fooling around, without climax as the goal.

Stoke sex organ No. 1, your brain. New things turn us on. Try changing places, positions, toys, and roles. Having more sex makes you want more sex.

Look Beyond Your Bed

Things that happen out of your bed can affect what goes on in it. Try these tips:

Talk. Make sure your partner gets that your chill isn't due to how you feel about him, if it's not. He might be confused and feel rejected. Discuss how to make sex better. "Talk about what helps, what you like," says Elizabeth G. Stewart, MD, a gynecologist and author of The V Book.

 Look in your mirror. Maybe it's your self-image that needs a boost. Lose weight if you need to, or take a fitness class -- steps like these can help you see the great things about your body. Feeling sexy is rooted in feeling good.

 Reach out. Are you bummed by a new empty nest or feeling "old"? Are you and your partner stuck? Talking to a counselor can shed light on how to power forward.

Source: webmd.com

 

Cancer treatments in pregnancy safe - Studies

Monday, 20 October 2014 07:10

CHILDREN whose mothers undergo chemotherapy or radiation for cancer during pregnancy are not at increased risk for mental development or heart problems, two small studies suggest.

Some doctors are reluctant to administer these treatments to pregnant women due to concerns about the potential impact the therapies may have on their children, the study authors noted.

In one study, researchers assessed 38 children -- median age 2 -- born to mothers who underwent chemotherapy during pregnancy and found the children had normal mental development and heart function.

"When chemotherapy is administered after the first trimester of pregnancy, we cannot discern any problems in the children," study author Dr. Frederic Amant, of University Hospitals Leuven in Belgium, said in a European Society for Medical Oncology news release.

"Fear about the risks of chemotherapy administration should not be a reason to terminate a pregnancy, delay cancer treatment for the mother, or to deliver a baby prematurely," Amant added.

In a second study, Amant and colleagues looked at 16 children and 10 adults whose mothers underwent radiation therapy during pregnancy. The participants had normal mental, behavioral and general health outcomes.

The studies were presented this week at a European Society for Medical Oncology meeting in Madrid. Research presented at meetings should be viewed as preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

The findings should help doctors and pregnant women with cancer make decisions in a difficult situation, Amant said.

Source: healthday

 

 

12 Tips to avoid diabetes complications

Tuesday, 21 October 2014 07:42

Choose Carbohydrates Carefully

DIABETES doesn't mean you have to cut carbohydrates completely. Choose carbohydrates that break down in the body slowly, providing steady energy. Reach for whole grains, beans, nuts, and fresh vegetables and fruits. Yes, you can eat fruit even though it's sweet. It's about eating the right amounts of carbohydrates at each meal. A registered dietitian can help you learn how much is right for you.

 

Lose Weight If You Need To

Start small. If you are overweight, shedding just a few pounds can improve the body's ability to use insulin. It'll help lower your blood sugar and improve your blood pressure and blood fats. You'll also have more energy. Ready? Aim to burn more calories than you eat. To start, try cutting fat and calories from your diet, such as chips or fries.

 

Get Enough Sleep

Getting too much or too little sleep can increase your appetite and cravings for high-carbohydrate foods. That can lead to weight gain, increasing your risk for complications such as heart disease. So shoot for seven or eight hours of sleep a night. If you have sleep apnea, treating it can improve your sleep and lower your blood sugar levels.

 

Be Active: Exercise and Diabetes

Pick something you like -- walking, dancing, biking, or just marching in place while you're on the phone. Do it a half-hour a day; work up to that if you need to. Exercise can help you lower your cardiovascular risks, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels, and keep your weight down. Exercise also relieves stress and may help you cut back on diabetes medication.

 

Monitor Your Blood Sugar Daily

You know you're supposed to check it. And actually checking your blood glucose levels can help you avoid diabetes complications, like nerve pain, or keep them from getting worse. Checking it can also help you see how foods and activities affect you, and if your treatment plan is working. Your doctor can help you set a target glucose level range. The closer you get to your target, the better you'll feel.

 

Manage Stress

When you have diabetes, stress can cause your blood glucose levels to rise. Get rid of whatever physical or mental stresses you can. Learn coping techniques to deal with others. Relaxation techniques such as breathing exercises, yoga, and meditation may be especially effective if you have type 2 diabetes.

 

Say No to Salt

Reduce the salt in your diet. It may help lower blood pressure and protect your kidneys. Not salting the food on your plate may not be enough. Most of the salt in Americans' diets comes from processed foods. Avoid convenience foods and use fresh ingredients when you can. Season your food with herbs and spices instead of salt when you cook.

Adults age 51 and older, and individuals with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease should talk with their doctor about how much to reduce their sodium intake. In general, people with diabetes should decrease to less than 2,300 mgs per day, however your doctor may recommend lower amounts.

 

Heart Disease Risk and Diabetes

Heart disease can be a serious diabetes complication. Keep an eye on your risk by getting these ABCs checked:
A1C level. This is a measure of your average blood sugar control for the last 2-3 months. You may need it checked two or more times a year. Talk to your doctor about setting a goal.

 

Take Care of Bumps and Bruises

Diabetes raises your risk of infection and slows healing, so treat even simple cuts and scrapes quickly. Properly clean your wound and use an antibiotic cream and sterile bandage. See a doctor if it's not better in a few days. Check your feet every day for blisters, cuts, sores, redness, or swelling. Moisturize them to prevent cracks.

 

Break Your Smoking Habit

People with diabetes who smoke are two times more likely to die prematurely than those who don't. Quitting helps your heart and lungs. It lowers your blood pressure and risk of stroke, heart attack, nerve damage, and kidney disease. Ask your doctor about help for quitting tobacco

 

Pick Super Foods, Don't Supersize

There's no single diabetes diet. But here are basics to keep in mind: Enjoy super foods like berries, sweet potatoes, fish with omega-3 fatty acids, and dark green, leafy vegetables. Look at food labels and avoid saturated fat and trans fats. Instead, opt for mono and polyunsaturated fats like olive oil. A registered dietitian can give you personalized advice.

 

Set Up Doctor Visits

Expect to see your doctor two to four times a year. If you take insulin or need help balancing your blood sugar levels, you may need to visit more often. Also get a yearly physical and eye exam. You should be screened for eye, nerve, and kidney damage, and other complications. See a dentist twice a year. And be sure to tell all health care providers that you have diabetes.

Source: webmd.com